Renewable energies for sustainable housing
Renewable energies are destined to take an increasingly important place in the countries of the European Union, with a target of 20% of final energy consumption by 2020. For France, the second European producer of energy. renewable energies behind Germany, this figure is a little more ambitious, at 23%. An effort mainly distributed in heat sources (33%), electricity (27%) and transport (10.5%), according to figures provided by the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy . This sustainable development objective is even set at 32% by 2030. Housing, which alone accounts for nearly a quarter of national energy consumption, is particularly targeted by this vast effort. Several renewable energy sources are already applicable to new homes.
"Renewable energy", what is it?
Renewable energies, or "green energies" denote inexhaustible primary energies, capable of regenerating themselves in the very long term or even theoretically infinitely, continuously and rapidly. They are opposed in this to fossil fuels (coal, gas, oil), whose stocks are certainly still very important, but quickly exhausted according to their current consumption. These energies are not renewed on a human scale (their formation process spans millions of years) and are also extremely polluting, with the famous greenhouse gases.
France has solid assets to develop the use of renewable energies, thanks in particular to vast forest and hydraulic resources. According to data from the Renewable Energies Union, it ranks second in Europe as a source of wind behind Great Britain, and 5 th for sunshine. The green energies already exploited or soon to be exploited are divided into six major energy sectors: solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, marine and biomass energy. In the particular field of construction, renewable energies mainly concern solar and wind power, as well as geothermal heat pumps and the use of wood heating.
Heating in an increasingly ecological and economical way
Heating and thermal insulation represent the crucial points of sustainable development efforts focused on housing. Buildings over twenty years old often combine all kinds of "energy gulfs": walls, attics and floors with little or no insulation, heating with fuel or electric very polluting and expensive ... The RT 2012 law has provided for three years for strict standards for buildings. new buildings, required not to exceed 50 kWh / m² per year. The future RT 2020 will go even further, forcing all new constructions to produce more energy than their own consumption.
In this perspective, green energies find their place perfectly. Solar energy represents the "cleanest" energy, without emission of pollutants. In the case of thermal solar energy, sensors fixed on the roofs capture solar radiation, which is distributed in the home by means of a gaseous or liquid fluid. Photovoltaic solar collects solar energy through silicon panels placed on the roofs or on the facade. In both cases, the tax credit is remarkably attractive, up to 50%.
Among the other sources of renewable energy available for the home is the heat pump. This system is available in three forms. The geothermal heat pump captures the natural energy contained in the ground in the form of calories, transforms it and distributes it via radiators, underfloor heating or convectors. The same concept applies to the aquathermic heat pump (collection of calories in water) and aerothermal heat (collection of calories in the air).
Another source of renewable energy concerns wood, which is abundantly available in France. If its combustion is well controlled, which is the norm for all new heating devices, wood is far less polluting than fossil fuels, and actively participates in sustainable development. Here too, state aid is particularly interesting, with a tax credit of 30%.